The electorate covers an area of approximately 7,296 sq km from Port Macquarie in the south to Coffs Harbour in the north. Main towns include Bellingen, Bowraville, Coffs Harbour, Crescent Head, Dorrigo, Gladstone, Hat Head, Kempsey, Macksville, Nambucca Heads, Port Macquarie, Sawtell, South West Rocks, Telegraph Point, Ulong and Urunga. Cowper spans three State Government seats and five Local Government areas.
As of February 2016, there were over 118,000 electors enrolled to vote in Cowper. Save for two years during the 1960s, Cowper has been held by the National Party since 1919. The longest serving member was Earle Page, founder of the then Country Party and Australia’s 11th Prime Minister.
Major sources of employment are healthcare and social assistance, retail, tourism and hospitality, and agriculture and horticulture, with nearly 4,000 people employed in picking and packing blueberries during the peak season.